Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA). To learn more about the APA format, see http.org that is://www.apastyle.
Your list of works cited must start at the conclusion of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, making use of the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Just the initials of the first and names that are middle given. In the event that author’s name is unknown, alphabetize because of the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.
For dates, spell out the names of months when you look at the text of the paper, but abbreviate them when you look at the selection of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the style that is day-month-year22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and get consistent. With all the month-day-year style, make sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
When reports were written on typewriters, the true names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had absolutely no way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, then publication names should be in italics as they are below if you use a computer. Check always with your instructor regarding their preference of employing italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the very first type of an entry must certanly be flush left, therefore the second and subsequent lines should always be indented 1/2″.
The APA guidelines specify using capitalization that is sentence-style the titles of books or articles, therefore you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule could be titles that are periodical proper names in a title that ought to nevertheless be capitalized. The title that is periodical run in title case, and is accompanied by the volume number which, with the title, can also be italicized.
If there is one or more author, use an ampersand (&) before the name associated with author that is last. If there are many more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the rest.
Place the date of publication in parentheses just after the true name of the author. Place a period of time after the closing parenthesis. Usually do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a history of the heroes of this imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the encyclopedia that is new (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600) essay writing help. New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: usually do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period of time following the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then give the page range (in regular type) without “pp.” If the periodical will not use volume numbers, such as newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, 9) april. Making the grade in the present schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, 21) july. California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, 21) july. Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the precise document that is website. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) right after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that goes to another line after a slash or before an interval. Continually look at your references to online documents. There’s no period following a URL. Note: if you fail to find several of this information, cite what is present.
Devitt, T. (2001, 2) august. Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html january
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom in our midst. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html
Note: If a document is contained within a big and website that is complexsuch as for instance that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization as well as the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.